By 1869 the working class in France had grown considerably. The progressive sections of the French working class broke away from bourgeois prestige and joined the Communist International. Anxiety grew day by day among the common people due to the dire conditions created by the endless hardship and poverty of the workers in the capitalist system. Houses, demonstrations, and strikes increased. People chanted ‘Republic Zindabad’ and ‘Napoleon Murdabad’. The people of Paris survived and were ready to defend the capital of their republic.
People who understood the treacherous government policies immediately revolted once in October 1870 and again in January 1871. By February 1871 the population had grown and the Central Committee of the National Guard was formed in Paris. The people, together with the National Guard, arrested the military general and seized the guns.
March 18, 1871 Revolution-Establishment of the Paris Commune.
At around 2pm on March 18, at the call of the Central Committee of the National Defense Force, armed men occupied the Orleans station and other bases in the city. The bourgeois government was overthrown. All power fell into the hands of the Central Committee of the National Defense Force. The new government formed the ‘Paris Commune’. People greeted the Commune Zindabad with jubilation.
Council elections are by universal suffrage. Commune activities were carried out with the scepter of workers, mass organizations of trade masses, trade unions, and revolutionary clubs. Women workers have helped the commune immensely. The commune council has become the highest authority in government. The same Paris Commune. Commune activities proved that the commune is a constitutional machine and the working class constitutional machine. The Paris Commune was the first working class dictatorship. In a short span of 72 days, the Paris Commune worked to consolidate the economy during the war and to improve the living conditions of working people. Those actions proved the Commune’s responsibility and concern for the well-being of labor.
Their collective war against the Paris Commune began with the alliance of the French bourgeoisie with Germany. The all-out attack on the city of Paris began on May 20. There was a fierce struggle in the streets. The working class performed an unparalleled feat. For days a week from May 21 to May 28, people fought heroically and sacrificed their lives. There was blood on the streets of Paris. Comrade Eugene Pottier, who after the defeat of the Paris Commune, wrote the ‘International working class Anthem‘.
Reasons for the defeat of the Paris Commune (identified by Karl Marx) 1) Lack of r e v o l u t i o n a r y party structure is a big mistake. 2) Rely on the old government machinery. Reactions were not suppressed. 3) The enemy is not completely exterminated. Did not observe enemy war preparations. Versailles was not attacked. 4) More emphasis was placed on municipal elections and negotiations. Did not recognize that power does not come and stand peacefully. 5) The support of the frontier areas for Revolutionary Paris did not gather. The revolution did not spread across the country.
The influence of Blanque, a prominent follower on the leadership of the Commune became paramount. Did not make proper use of the advice given from Marx ‘International.
The historical significance of the commune-the commune had a tremendous impact on the international working class struggle. It sparked a communist movement throughout Europe. Proved the power of the Civil War. The commune taught the European working class to clearly determine the goals of the socialist revolution. Lenin described the experience of the Paris Commune, which Marx recognized as “a new kind of democracy, a working class democracy.” He wanted to unite the working class leadership and continue the class struggle for a united government of oppressed classes. The Paris Commune was the first working class dictatorship. It served as a model for the Soviet government.
With the formation of the Paris Commune, Marxism succeeded in defeating all the false ideologies of the working class movement and taking over the leadership position, so that even its enemies could disguise themselves as Marxists. Marxism clashes with this opportunistic revisionist tendency.
During the First World War (in 1917) the success of the October Socialist Revolution in Russia and the outbreak of national liberation struggles in the colonial countries plunged imperialism into a perpetual crisis. Human society has entered an era of revolutions. Contributed to the formation of communist parties around the world, the formation of the Third International, and the expansion of revolutionary struggles. During World War II, the People’s Democratic States of Eastern Europe were established with the support of the Red Army, and the Mao-led (October 1949) Chinese Socialist Revolution was a success.
On the other hand, the crises of capitalism continued unabated until the 1970s, when the world economic and political policies pursued by the imperialists after World War II (via the World Bank, IMF) were temporarily recovered from the imperialist crisis. In Soviet Russia the counter-modern revisionist Khrushchev gang revived capitalism after 1956. It tore apart the world working class, the communist parties, the socialist camp. The Communist Party of China, led by Mao, defeated modern revisionism and led the working class cultural revolution in China, preventing the revival of capitalism. After 1976, however, the modern revisionist Deng gang implemented liberal policies and transformed China into a capitalist country. The world has gone without a socialist camp.
Emerging as an unstoppable force in the imperialist camp after World War II, the American superpower faced Russian superpower competition for 2 decades after 1970 (until the fall of the Russian superpower in 1991). As the United States has been economically weak since the 1970s, so has its strategic weakness. The crisis of 2008 exacerbated it. China is a newcomer to world imperialism, and the United States is facing competition from countries such as Russia, Britain, France, Germany and China. America is gradually losing its supremacy.
The periodic crises of capitalism were replaced by the general crisis (permanent). It went through many stages and after the First and Second World Wars it was in a situation where it could not get out of the crisis again. No matter what kind of reforms investors introduce, they will not get out of the perpetual crisis. Keynesian theories and reforms New economic policies (LPGs) since the 1980s have not been able to pull themselves out of the crisis.
Capitalism today is facing a recession in production and investment based on historically unprecedented low interest rates, extraordinary accumulation of wealth in the hands of a few, large amounts of debt, drained world investment, and monetary investment speculation. Inequalities in wealth and income have risen to unprecedented levels. What is happening is that the earth is being made without a suitable place for man to live, damaging the global environment. The global monopoly capitalism and the monetary system have become the main carriers of the new epidemic. Governments are enforcing large-scale sanctions in the form of neo-liberalism and neo-fascism.
In the capitalist system, the competition has increased due to the monopoly capitalism. Economic inequalities have further increased. Wealth in one place, poverty in another, and class conflicts intensified. Now capitalism is in deep crisis. Goes deeper than the intensity of the 1930s. This was further exacerbated by the Kovid-19 epidemic. This has increased the concerns of the working class and other oppressed people around the world.
Unemployment is rising and purchasing power is declining due to economic and political policies that are destroying productive forces and undermining productivity. Today poverty is on the rise and so is the food crisis. This great revolutionary crisis has never happened before.
Overcoming the setbacks of the world revolution that has been going on since 1976, there is an unprecedented level of anti-imperialist struggles and world working class revolutions around the world today. This will lead to the outbreak of another series of revolutions. In India, the Maoist parties in the Philippines, Turkey, Peru and other countries are preparing to take advantage of this situation and move forward.
The two factions, which had been at loggerheads since 1871, have been in constant class conflict for the last 150 years. The status of the Paris Commune continues. The working class is ready for the victory of the world revolution.
source: People’s March